Owing to the federal structures, a uniform M&V process is so far not established in Germany. The existing structures combine ad hoc verification and systematic monitoring based on national methods. These methods are linked closely to the ESD/EED methodology for tracking energy savings but are first and foremost adapted to national circumstances. A key feature of all M&V mechanisms in place is their emphasis on cost-effectiveness. Public authorities do not consider a seamless M&V system as an end in itself. Rather, costs and benefits are considered to make sure that programmes delivering the biggest amount of savings are monitored closely, whereas supporting measures are monitored in a looser way. This guarantees that the available resources are optimised and used for setting up and running policies and measures rather than establishing statistics.