A Monitoring and Verification (M&V) scheme is an integrated mechanism for the continuous monitoring of different programmes, including separated energy efficiency measures, the measurement of their impact in terms of energy savings and the verification of the measured impacts.

An M&V scheme can undertake the monitoring, measurement and verification of a programme within a certain period of time. The programme could for example consist of three different energy efficiency measures: 1) the implementation of 40,000 energy efficiency interventions in households (e.g. high efficient window frames, insulation, high efficient boilers etc.), 2) the implementation of 1,000 energy efficiency interventions in industrial processes (e.g. high efficient motors and boilers etc.) and 3) the promotion of 15,000 high efficient vehicles in transport sector.

With the requirement to transpose the Energy Savings Directive (ESD) at national level by mid-2008 and to monitor the progress made in achieving the energy saving target of 9% on a regular basis, Austria has established a bottom-up monitoring system for energy efficiency end-use measures, which became operational in autumn of 2015. This monitoring system has been completely revised and adapted to the requirements of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED), repealing the ESD as of 2012 and the Austrian Federal Energy Efficiency Law of August 2014.

The Austrian Energy Agency is the national monitoring body for Austria in charge, among others, of setting up the entire monitoring process, developing a central online-database for the reporting of the implemented energy efficiency measures, developing and updating bottom-up calculation methods and reporting the savings to the Federal Ministry of Science, Research and Economy. Finally, the M&V scheme in Austria obliges the federal bodies and obligated parties of the Energy Efficiency Obligation scheme to report energy efficiency measures on a yearly basis. A statistically significant sample of these will be verified by the national monitoring body by means of plausibility checks, in depth checks and occasionally by means of on-site visits.

Link to the Austrian Energy Agency.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Reporting obligations
  • Administrative costs
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

As each of the three Belgian regions developed/develops its own Energy Efficiency Action Plan, each region has also set up its own M&V scheme. The monitoring approach mainly applied in the Walloon Region and Flemish region is a bottom-up approach. The EU recommended bottom-up formulae are used by these regions most of the time for quantifying the energy savings of implemented energy efficiency measures; only when the data at hand does not fit the recommended bottom-up formulae, alternative formulae are applied, developed by the monitoring bodies in the regions itself. A top-down approach is mainly applied for the transport sector. Energy efficiency measures suggested and implemented mainly target the building sector; however, substantial energy savings are also reported in the energy, industrial and transport sectors.

Link to the Belgian Regions

The M&V scheme in Bulgaria has been developed according to the requirements the ESD and EED. The overall evaluation of the M&V scheme can be characterised as positive, taking into consideration the period of implementation, the development of specialised bottom-up methodologies and the organisation of the necessary verification procedures with the activation of the Sustainable Energy Development Agency (SEDA).

Links: Ministry of Energy, Sustainable Energy Development Agency (SEDA)

Croatia has implemented an integrated IT-tool, the System for Monitoring, Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings (SMIV), for the homogenous monitoring and reporting of their M&V schemes, which will be entered and verified until the end of 2016. Croatia is currently in the process of training the end-users in effectively using the tool.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The establishment of the necessary M&V scheme in Cyprus is performed according to the requirements of the EED. The majority of the critical aspects of the M&V scheme have already been introduced and can be assessed positively, especially for the case of data collection, measurement and verification procedures.

An M&V scheme has not been established yet in the Czech Republic, despite the requirements of Article 7 of the EED. Nevertheless, various procedures have been established regarding the measurement and verification of the implemented energy efficiency measures.

Denmark has already developed and implemented an M&V scheme for the monitoring of the implemented energy efficiency measures at national level. Various top-down and bottom-up methods have been used for the effective measurement of the achieved energy savings. Finally, an IT-tool has been developed for the effective monitoring of the implemented energy efficiency measures.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Reporting obligations
  • Administrative costs

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The M&V system in Estonia is under development for monitoring the implemented energy efficiency measures within the framework of EED, including the monitoring of Article 7. Nevertheless, some aspects have already been introduced, such as the necessary bottom-up approaches (especially in the residential building sector) and the verification activities.

Finland has already developed and implemented an M&V scheme for the monitoring of the implemented energy efficiency measures at national and local level. Various top-down and bottom-up methods have been used for the effective measurement of the achieved energy savings.

The introduced M&V system in France is not one single monitoring and verification system, but the system varies depending on each specific energy efficiency measure having a strong support from the involved authorities. The catalogue of standardised operations listing 304 best practices in terms of energy efficiency measures and the savings that can be expected from these measures facilitate the M&V process. But hardly any quantitative ex-post evaluations have been run on the Energy Savings Certificate (ESC) scheme. France is missing the concrete knowledge on the actual savings covered by the M&V scheme. Nevertheless, standard operations sheets are regularly updated, which allow feedback to be taken into account from the implementation of energy efficiency measures reviewing the performed calculations regarding the achieved energy savings.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Reporting obligations
  • Administrative costs
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Owing to the federal structures, a uniform M&V process is so far not established in Germany. The existing structures combine ad hoc verification and systematic monitoring based on national methods. These methods are linked closely to the ESD/EED methodology for tracking energy savings but are first and foremost adapted to national circumstances. A key feature of all M&V mechanisms in place is their emphasis on cost-effectiveness. Public authorities do not consider a seamless M&V system as an end in itself. Rather, costs and benefits are considered to make sure that programmes delivering the biggest amount of savings are monitored closely, whereas supporting measures are monitored in a looser way. This guarantees that the available resources are optimised and used for setting up and running policies and measures rather than establishing statistics.

The establishment of the necessary M&V schemes in Greece is performed according to the requirements of each energy efficiency measures and depends on their unique characteristics. As a result the homogeneous implementation of a robust M&V scheme is considered as a prerequisite for the efficient implementation of the EED and the fulfilment of the corresponding energy efficiency targets. As noted in the last submitted National Energy Efficiency Action Plan, for all the developed energy efficiency measures a specific M&V scheme has to be developed according to the requirements of Article 7 of the EED.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The M&V scheme in Hungary is in compliance with the requirements of the EED. Especially the procedures for the measurement and verification of the achieved energy savings can be assessed positively especially for the case of the utilized bottom-up methodologies and indicators.

Ireland has developed a multi-functional M&V system based on an IT-application. Bottom-up approaches are utilised, while specific verification procedures have been established. The quality of verification is provided by defining issues, which are crucial for verification quality, and by combining important factors in order to ensure verification. Among them there is clear scope of actions to be undertaken by the Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI), responsibilities of report submitters, role of a high quality IT-tool in validation of projects, and others relative issues.

The implemented M&V schemes in Italy can be positively evaluated, as they operate for many years proving their effectiveness, especially for the case of the white certificate scheme. Moreover, these M&V schemes have been developed in accordance with the requirements of the ESD and EED. The implemented bottom-up procedures and verification procedures can be considered as successful aspects of the M&V schemes. Even if a homogeneous M&V scheme does not exist, the operation of separate M&V schemes according to the peculiarities of each energy efficiency measure seems to be an effective strategy for the development of similar M&V schemes.

Latvia has in place an M&V system since 2010, based on the ex-post evaluation of the achieved energy savings. However, the current scope of covered measures includes only energy efficiency improvements in buildings. The existing M&V system also covers only those energy efficiency measures and projects, which are co-financed by the EU Funds or by national public budget support. Finally, specific procedures for the verification and the auditing of the achieved energy savings have been developed.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Data collection procedures
  • Reporting obligations

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The existing M&V rules in Lithuania have been developed in accordance with the requirements of the ESD and EED. The overall evaluation of the foreseen rules can be characterised as positive, taking into consideration the development of specialised bottom-up methodologies and the organisation of the necessary verification procedures.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Luxembourg has implemented an M&V scheme within the framework of the imposed obligation on the obligated parties (energy suppliers) covering the implementation of energy efficiency measures in the residential, service, industrial and transport sectors. Main coordinating body is Ministry of Economy, while the monitoring and reporting are performed on annual basis via a questionnaire.

An M&V scheme has already been defined in the legislation in FYR of Macedonia. The obligations of the different responsible bodies are defined, while all the secondary legislation has been adopted. Nevertheless, in practice, the M&V scheme is still not functioning on full scale. The potential application of a universal IT tool for measuring energy savings could improve the system.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Summarising, the establishment of the necessary M&V scheme in Malta has been performed according to the requirements of Article 7 of the EED. Nevertheless, its effectiveness should be evaluated after the implementation of the majority of the planned energy efficiency measures revealing potentially weak and strong points.

Summarising existing M&V schemes in the Netherlands can be evaluated as positive. Existing schemes are developed in accordance with the requirements of the ESD and EED. For selected measures, the savings are then mapped in more detail with bottom-up monitoring, allowing more direct connections to be made with policy measures. Moreover, specific verification procedures have been established. A homogeneous M&V scheme at present does not exist, so the operation of separate M&V scheme according to the peculiarities of each energy efficiency measure seems to be an effective way for the development M&V.

The M&V scheme for energy efficiency measures is currently being implemented in Poland, where some of the introduced aspects can be assessed positively, such as the foreseen verification procedures.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Data collection procedures
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Reporting obligations

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Portugal does not have an M&V scheme currently in operation for energy efficiency measures, nor is it in its implementation phase, apart from the reporting schemes to the Directorate General of Energy and Geology (DGEG). Instead, there are periodic surveys and evaluation reports in the mandatory schemes for public consumers along with data collection on specific facilities, such as energy efficiency in public administration.

An M&V scheme for energy efficiency measures is currently being implemented in Romania. Even if this scheme attempts to fulfil the requirements of the corresponding EU legislation, various aspects should be improved, such as the obligation for verification for the measured energy savings and the establishment of specific targets being set for the implementation of the monitored and verified energy efficiency measures.

The implemented M&V schemes in Slovakia have some aspects that can be assessed positively. Specifically, the implemented bottom-up and verification procedures contribute to the fulfillment of the achieved energy savings targets, while the developed IT tool indisputably facilitates the effective operation of the M&V scheme.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Reporting obligations
  • Integrated tools

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Slovenia has no integrated tool and the national level is the only one that is truly integrated into energy efficiency measurement and verification.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Sectoral and spatial analysis
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Verification procedures

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The M&V scheme in Spain has been developed according to the requirements of the ESD and EED. The overall evaluation of the M&V scheme can be characterised as positive, taking into consideration the period of implementation, the development of specialised bottom-up methodologies and the organisation of the necessary verification procedures. Finally, the role of Institute for Energy Diversification and Saving (IDAE) seems to be essential for the effectiveness of the M&V scheme.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Data collection procedures
  • Verification procedures

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

Sweden has already developed and implemented an M&V scheme for the monitoring of the implemented energy efficiency measures at national, regional and local levels. A combination of top-down and bottom-up methods has been used for the effective measurement of the achieved energy savings.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures
  • Verification procedures

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

The implemented M&V schemes in the UK can be evaluated positively. Existing M&V schemes have been developed in accordance with the requirements of the ESC and EED. Even if a homogeneous M&V scheme does not exist, the operation of separate M&V schemes according to the peculiarities of each energy saving measure seems to be an effective strategy for the development of existing M&V schemes.

Best practice cases have been identified under the following topics:

  • Administrative authorities and their responsibilities
  • Measurement and monitoring procedures

Here is the full report on European best practices for M&V schemes and coordination mechanisms

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